The Principality of Monaco is a sovereign city-state in Europe. Monaco is located in Western Europe, along the southeastern coast of France. Monaco's 4 kilometers of coastline is along the area known as the French Riviera (Côte d’Azur), which has some of the world's most beautiful beaches along the Mediterranean Sea. Monaco borders France on all three of its land borders, but Italy's coast is only a few kilometers away.
Monaco is only 2 square kilometers, making it the second smallest sovereign nation in the world, after Holy Sea (Vatican City). Almost all of Monaco is urban, with only a tiny portion of the 4 kilometers devoted to agriculture. Some of Monaco’s area has been reclaimed from the sea in recent times.
Even though Monaco is not a member of the European Union, it is closely linked to the organization because of its relationship with France, so Monaco uses the Euro as its form of currency. Until recently, Monaco minted its own coins, called the Monegasque franc, which were produced until 2002.
Monaco's population is around 35,500. With a life expectancy of almost 90 years, the population of Monaco has the world's longest life span. Its population combined with Monaco's small area gives it the highest population density in the world.
The French make up almost half of the population of Monaco, while Monegasque and Italian make up nearly 20 percent each.
Monaco has no official religion, but about 90 percent of the population identifies as Roman Catholic.
French is the official language of Monaco, but English, Italian, and Monegasque are also spoken. Monegasque evolved from the Italian dialect of Liguria, the Italian region closest to Monaco. Monegasque is influenced by French as well as Intemelio and Mentonasc dialects.